Who Invented the Hot Air Balloon? (Answered)

hot air balloon in an old town

The creation of the hot air balloon was a significant event in human history, marking a turning point. It has fascinated adventurers and tourists alike since 1783, and nowadays, it is frequently used for balloon festivals, races, proposals, and even as an intimate wedding venue.

The desire to fly has been a human dream since the 18th century, and the inception of the hot air balloon manifested that otherworldly desire.

Who Invented the Hot Air Balloon?

The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne, invented the hot air balloon in France in 1783. They discovered that heated air was lighter than cool air, leading them to experiment with silk bags filled with smoke from burning wool and hay, leading to the first hot air balloon.

About the Montgolfier Brothers

The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph (1740 – 1810) and Étienne (1745 – 1799) were French paper manufacturers from Annonay. In 1782, they became fascinated by the concept of a machine that could fly. They started their experiments using small paper bags and quickly progressed to larger models made of silk and taffeta.

When Was the First Hot Air Balloon Made?

The Montgolfier brothers built the first hot-air balloon in 1783. The brother’s first successful large-scale hot air balloon was made from a combination of silk and linen and was powered by an iron stove that burned a mixture of straw and wool.

In June 1783, they launched their first unmanned hot air balloon in front of a large crowd in Annonay, which rose roughly 6,000 feet before landing over a mile away. This successful experiment made them famous overnight and encouraged them to continue their experiments.

The First Manned Hot Air Balloon Flight

On October 19th, 1783, they launched their first manned hot air balloon flight with Étienne as the pilot and Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier as his passenger. Along with the first free (non-tethered) human flight on November 21st, 1783.

With King Louis XVI, the royal family, and a crowd of curious onlookers, a duck, sheep, and rooster were launched into the air. This historical moment marked the first time in history when a manned balloon had been lifted off the ground and flown through the air. Paving the way for people to take flight soon after.

Their invention took Europe by storm and inspired many others to experiment with similar machines. Although not initially interested in applying their design for commercial use or military applications, they earned several honors for their contributions to science, including entry into France’s prestigious Académie des Sciences in Paris.

Historical Uses for Hot Air Balloons

Hot air balloons were invented in the late 18th century, and over the years, they have been used for various purposes, including:

Military Signaling

The French Army was the first to use hot air balloons for military signaling in the late 18th century via pre-arranged signals that could be seen from miles away.

The first recorded use of hot air balloons for military purposes was during the Battle of Fleurus in 1794. French engineer Jean-Baptiste Meusnier observed Austrian troop movements from a tethered balloon and reported back to General Jourdan with critical intelligence that helped turn the tide of battle in favor of France.

Hot air balloons continued to be used for military purposes throughout the 19th century, mainly when telegraph or radio communications were not yet available or reliable. During World War I, balloons were used for artillery spotting and reconnaissance missions.

However, with technological advancements, such as airplanes and satellites, hot air balloons have become less popular for military use. Nonetheless, they remain essential to aviation history, and their contributions cannot be overlooked.

Charting Maps

Hot air balloons provide a slow yet steady bird’s eye view of the landscape, making them a popular option for charting maps. Another critical application of hot air balloons in mapping is identifying geological features such as fault lines, mineral deposits, and oil reserves.


Hot air balloons have been a popular recreational activity since the late 19th century and remain a favorite among tourists and adventure seekers nowadays.

The first competitive hot air balloon race, the Gordon Bennett Cup, occurred in Paris in 1906. Apart from competitive racing, hot air balloons are also used for other sporting events like skydiving and paragliding competitions, thanks to the large surface area, making an ideal platform for jumpers to launch.

Conclusion: The Invention Of The Hot Air Balloon

The invention of the hot air balloon is a testament to human ingenuity and curiosity. The Montgolfier brothers’ pioneering experiments with hot air and balloons led to the birth of human-crewed flight. From its humble beginnings as a simple sackcloth and paper balloon in France in 1783, hot air balloons have been used for military signaling, map charting, sports, and tourism.
And thanks to today’s technological advances, hot air balloon rides are safer than ever while retaining the thrill of adventure from centuries ago.